The fee for not having health insurance (sometimes called the "Shared Responsibility Payment" or "mandate”) ended in 2018. This means you no longer pay a tax penalty for not having health coverage. If you don’t have health coverage, you don’t need an exemption to avoid paying a tax penalty.
However, if you’re 30 or older and want a "Catastrophic" health plan, you must apply for a hardship exemption or an affordability exemption to qualify. Learn about exemptions and Catastrophic coverage.
These states have their own exemptions processes. Visit their websites to apply for an exemption: